I think I'm learning Japanese,It's been fun studying Japanese. I thought I loved Mandarin's grammar, but I love Japanese grammar even more. Check out its cool particle system.
I think I'm learning Japanese,
I really think so.
It's also impressive how much less space Japanese writing takes than English writing: Day Of The Locusts.
All of this is providing inspiration for Novvocu. Here's an expansion of the particle system:
bo case particle [Inspired by Japanese 'yori'] What precedes it is what is being compared to.
co case particle [Inspired by Japanese 'hodo'.] What precedes it is being compared to something else.
da phrase particle [NA.] Indicates that the preceding is a restrictive attribute of the following.
ge phrase particle [Chinese 'ge', generic counter.] Indicates this phrase provides a count of the number of occurences of the next phrase. Example: duos ge citab, "two books", vs. duosa citab, "second book"; ge citab, "books" (when number is omitted acts as an indication of plurality).
hi case particle [NA.] Indicates the "vocable" case; used to indicate what was actually said.
je phrase particle [Loglan 'je'.] Associates this phrase with the next phrase in some loose semantic way (similar to "of").
sa phrase particle [NA.] Indicates that the preceding is a descriptive or parenthetical attribute of the following.
ti embedding particle [Ciravesu.] Marks the beginning of an embedded clause or sentence.
va case particle [NA.] The argument is used to indicate the object, aim or purpose of an action or activity ("for").
vu embedding particle [NA.] Marks the ending of an embedded clause or sentence.
The following old particle was removed:
hi sentence particle [NA.] Ironic negation. The sentence is false. Translation "…not!"
And ba was replaced with je (borrowed from Loglan).
Since particles are small words, I’m working to make sure there is little confusion between the words when heard. I’m trying to make sure that no particles differ from one another only in voicing (e.g., if the system has the particle vu, it can’t have fu) and that no particles have the same consonant with a vowel in the same position (e.g., if the system has the particle vu, it can’t have vo; if it has vi, it can’t have ve). The other avoidances are that no words can differ in /l/ vs. /r/ or /m/ vs. /n/ (e.g., if the system has the particle ni it can’t have mi). A final avoidance is that within a specific type of particle (e.g., case particles) no particles begin with the same vowel.
These avoidance patterns reduce the number of possible CV words from 80 (16 consonants by 5 vowels) to 24 (8 consonants by 3 vowels). Since the system currently has 28 particles, it ignores these restrictions for words from Japanese (ca vs. ga, ne vs. ni, and the vowel-only forms e and o). In other words, I cheat if the words are of Japanese origin. "Everyone avoids me like a Cyclone Ranger."